Productive inclusion is a necessity of our time. Despite the advances observed in poverty reduction policies in recent decades, it is still a great challenge to combine the fight against poverty with work opportunities that promote the conditions for dignified, productive and autonomous lives. At the same time, everywhere, the world of work is reconfiguring itself in the midst of a technological, demographic, urban and socio-environmental transition, casting doubt on the solutions that have historically been given to unemployment. Brazil is no exception in this regard. Added to the social exclusion that crosses the country’s history, the solutions used in recent decades have found new limits. Furthermore, the last few years have shown an employment crisis that is difficult to resolve.